“A fiery devil, thundering along”: HS2 and the Victorians

Over the last few months, debates over the High Speed 2 railway line have been mounting, with a succession of reports on the future of the line following the submission to Parliament of the HS2 bill back in November 2013. I’ve followed with interest the development of the planned line over the last few years, with a focus on two areas that will be affected if the HS2 line goes ahead: where I currently live in Warwickshire, the HS2 line will pass about a mile from the University of Warwick’s campus, cutting across the Kenilworth fields and passing  just north of Leamington Spa; and then further down the route passes a few miles from my hometown in South Bucks, where there remains a campaign to further protect the Chilterns Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), including ancient woodland, which the line traverses. HS2 Studying as I do the Victorian railways, it’s been interesting to see the resonances in response to the HS2 line in the context of arguments surrounding the “coming of the railway” in the 1840s. In particular, it’s been indicative to identify a reiteration of ideas around the railway as a symbol of modernity. For the Victorians, the railway was the most evocative symbol of a new, modern era, often depicted as a “fiery devil, thundering along” (Dombey and Son) that seemed to come from another age and was pernicious in its spread into the furthest corners of the country that had yet been (seemingly) untouched by modernity. In George Eliot’s Middlemarch (1874 – but set earlier in the century), the “projected line was to run through Lowick parish where the cattle had hitherto grazed in a peace unbroken by astonishment” (chapter 56); in Bleak House (1852-53) Dickens depicts an era pivoting on the edge of the railway era, contrasting the rural quietude of a place that is thus far beyond the reach of modernity – “the post-chaise makes its way without a railroad on its mind” – with the anticipation of the coming railway line which will soon change this: “with a rattle and a glare the engine and train shall shoot like a meteor over the wide night-landscape, turning the moon paler” (chapter 55). Wherever it went, the railway decisively announced that modernity had arrived, and had irrevocably changed the landscape: Dombey and Son shows us a landscape literally torn apart by the new railway line, Staggs’ Gardens “rent to its centre” and in a mess of chaos and confusion as the building of the railway tears houses to dust and creates a chasm in the city landscape.  HS2 sign HS2 poses much the same problem: as in the Victorian period, the requisite of the railway track to follow as straight a line as possible necessitates that everything in the projected path is demolished, moved or transported in order to make way for the tracks. There are countless areas where housing will be knocked down: in Burton Green, the track will cut through “straight as a ruler” and “slice” the village in half; in the Chilterns, the line will “bisect” the AONB although this has been avoided in plans for the northern phase 2 of the route. In this recent episode of Countryfile, farmer Robert Brown is among those to speak of the impact that the line will have on farmland (from c.17 mins in): running through the existing field layout, the route will change the way in which the land is managed and accessed, severing an existing field in two. It’s the same problem faced by the farmers of Middlemarch, who are occupied by “the vivid conception of what it would be to cut the Big Pasture in two, and turn it into three-corned bits, which would be ‘nohow’” (553). Railways don’t just destroy spaces, they change the organisation of space and restructure how it can be moved around.

There are of course crucial differences with the Victorian period, but what is interesting is the perception, as in the Victorian period, that this represents the onset of modernity for rural regions. HS2 does, of course, entail hardhitting and forceful destruction; but at the same time, HS2 is just one component of contemporary modernity’s impact upon the land. Every day, rural (and urban spaces) are being reshaped by the demands of new (and often contested) structures and it can no longer be said (if it could even of the Victorian period) that there are areas “untouched” by modernity: the rural areas through which HS2 travels are no less “modern” than the cities where it originates; modernity is here, now, in the machines that work the land, in the fibre-optic broadband cables that run beneath it, and in the planes that fly overhead. But as in the Victorian era, there is something about the railway that generates a more resonant and deeply felt response: then as now, the railway seems to stand for something more than the sum of their parts, forming an evocative site around which these other ideas about space and modernity coalesce. Railways make visible the latent structures that already permeate and produce the landscapes of modernity: as in the instances above, railways have a tangible impact on the organisations of locales and regions; in the railway network, uneven development becomes visible as those “off the railway” lose out; and in some iterations, the railway even becomes placed as the Moloch-like god of capitalism, which we are asked to view as an “act of faith“.

How the HS2 plans play out in practice has yet to be seen, and there is still time in which some of these impacts can hopefully be reduced, if not averted altogether: the next round of petitioning starts in July, and with near-daily news reports on the case against HS2, it can but be hoped that the government will reassess the situation; meanwhile attention is beginning to turn to phase 2 which will continue the line from Birmingham to Leeds and Manchester, and it will be interesting to see how the impact is perceived in these regions too.

4 thoughts on ““A fiery devil, thundering along”: HS2 and the Victorians”

  1. Very good post.

    I suppose one thing I keep returning to is that the railways had a tangible impact on bringing the country together. For this, in these times, HS2 is needed. The transport connections are already there. Yes, they need work but that work would be better than an expensive line that no one can guarantee is going to be used and won’t cut much time from journeys. I might feel happier about the HS2 concept if private companies were footing the bill as the big Victorian companies did – then I would anticipate that there was at least a profit in it. In addition, the internet and other inventions have markedly changed the way humans interact with people, no need to do it in person any more.

    My gut tells me that HS2 won’t make it up as far as Wakefield where it threatens to cause a lot of disruption through country parks with no discernible benefit to the town (they claim they’ll build a stock yard nearby but I think that promise has been made to a lot of areas to get them to shut up). The political situation up here is hilarious – the council has voted against the proposals while the Shadow Transport Secretary and our local MP blindly follows the party line. I don’t think this transport link benefits from being politicised – either it’s necessary and worthwhile or it isn’t. And I’m almost certain that it isn’t.

  2. Thanks- interesting comment and it’s really good to hear on the perspectives from further north. I do wonder how the southern objectives are perceived elsewhere – arguably, the further north the line goes, the greater its benefit in terms of reducing journey times but I suspect, as you say, that is still outweighed by all the negatives. The problem with the ‘connection’ posed by HS2, which I only touched on briefly at the end, is that it simply exacerbates the discrepancies already inherent in the current network (what about better connections for the West and South West, for example). While I hope for your sake that HS2 doesn’t make it to Wakefield, at the same time at least that would make the whole phase 1 seem a little more worthwhile; at the moment. all of this is for a mere 10 minutes or so off journey times from the midlands to London…

  3. While I can’t remember the revised projection for journey times from around here, I do know it wasn’t overwhelming. At the moment you can get from Sheffield to London or Leeds to London in about two hours. I don’t think that zigzagging across the country is going to reduce that much – if at all.

    One of the other issues that I foresee is the current government’s desire (and I think Labour have reiterated their support too) for more ‘garden cities’ being built. These new developments are going to need to be plugged into major networks. Now, of course, HS2 won’t accommodate them so other links will have to but how will those works fit in with HS2? So many questions. I realise that ostensibly a lot were answered in the hybrid bill but the answers were fudged really, as revisions of journey times have proven.

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